Brake systems that can stop a high speed train quickly, safely and reliably are necessary for improved trains to operate at higher maximum speeds. Higher deceleration is needed for efficient transportation in urban areas and lighter brake equipment is needed for Shinkansen. Effective utilization of adhesion makes braking distance short even under wet rail condition for high speed intercity train. Brakes must be able to protect trains against sudden collapse of elevated railway structures, as occurred in an earthquake. We explain the brake technologies related with adhesion, wheel slip control, a rail brake, a hydraulic brake and a carbon composite disk brake under development.