2. Three-dimensional dynamic simulator of pantograph/catenary system

A three-dimensional dynamic simulator of a pantograph/catenary system was developed based on a non-linear finite element method. The new method can calculate the three-dimensional static geometry of the overhead contact lines taking into account the influence of flexural rigidity of the contact and messenger wires, and inclination of droppers and steady arms due to the horizontal component of the tensile force, which were not considered in previous methods. Based on this, it is possible to accurately evaluate the amount of uplift of the contact wire at the support point due to horizontal components of the tension (Fig.1). This method can also be used to analyze the dynamic behaviour of the catenary and pantographs by virtue of accurate calculation of dropper and steady arm dynamics. Therefore, it is possible to accurately evaluate the dynamic behaviour of the pantograph/catenary system when subject to wind load, etc. (Fig.2).

The simulator can be applied to simple or compound catenaries, or with unevenly-spaced hangers; as such, this method can be used as a powerful tool for catenary/pantograph system design and evaluation.